Sven-Olof Olsson

Sverige i det handelspolitiska maktspelet 1919-1939.

För öppna små stater som de nordiska med starkt beroende av internationell handel var mellankrigstiden instabil och turbulent. De fick svårt att av egen kraft orientera sig i de maktblock som uppstod. Situationen var värst för de nybildade staterna Norge och Finland medan det var något enklare för Danmark och Sverige, som hade organisation och vana vid internationella handelskontakter.
Detta projekt har tre syften:
1) Att i ljuset av nyare forskning studera och analysera, hur Sveriges situation och ställning i Europa påverkades av internationella avtal och handelsblockbildningar, först under 1920-talet och sedan efter krisen på 1930-talet. Fokus läggs på de stora varugrupperna såsom export av järnmalm, handelsjärn och skogsprodukter och import av kol, olja och insatsvaror i industri och jordbruk. I fokus står handel och avtal med Tyskland och Storbritannien.
2) Att undersöka hur nationens respektive bransch- och egenintressen påverkade processen för och utfallet av handelsförhandlingarna. 3) Att jämföra de fyra nordiska ländernas (Island exkluderat) förhandlingspositioner, organisering och resultat av internationella förhandlingar och avtal.
Mellankrigstidens utrikeshandel och handelspolitik är relativt lite behandlad för de nordiska ländernas del. Viss ny forskning av intresse för föreliggande undersökning har dock skett under senare år, särskilt i Finland. Ett nordiskt kontaktnät har etablerats.

Sven-Olof Olsson, Högskolan i Halmstad

Innehåll i kommande bok:
1 Svensk handelspolitik under mellankrigstiden. De små nordiska staternas förhandlingsposition. Periodisering, forskningsläge, teorier, viktiga frågor, etc (vissa bitar påbörjade, blir c:a 15 s. i färdigt skick)
2 Industri och handel. Viktiga varor och handelspartners (ej klart, blir c:a 20 s.)
3 Svensk kolimport med fokus på kol från Polen (15 s. klart)
4 Oljeimportens framväxt och organisering (ej klar, c:a 10 s.)
5 Järnmalm, järn och stål i export och import (10 s. klart)
6 Skogsnäringarnas betydelse för utrikeshandeln (19 s. klart)
7 Jordbruket i kris och uppgörelse (delvis klart, blir c:a 16 s.)
8 Organisationerna och handelspolitiken (ej klart, blir c:a 20 s.)
9 Slutsummering (ännu ej påbörjat, blir c:a 10 s.)
Referenser
Tabellbilaga
Sammanlagt cirka 160-175 sidor

Dessutom har bl a följande utförts i anslutning till projektet:
a) "Swedish foreign trade in the 1930s. From a corporate perspective"
(Paper presented at the session "The Deglobalization of the 1930s:
Foreign trade and the Great Depression in the Nordic countries"
26. nordiska historikermötet i Reykjavík den 8-12 augusti 2007) 19 s.
Studien diskuterar den roll korporationer haft politiskt och ekonomiskt i Sverige för att komma fram till nationella avtal och uppgörelser under och efter 30-talskrisen.

b) "Polen i det handelspolitiska maktspelet 1919-1939",
Paper till det ekonomisk-historiska mötet i Stockholm den 12-14 oktober 2007,
12 s.
Polens roll i det handelspolitiska maktspelet under mellankrigstiden är föga uppmärksammat av forskare utanför Polen. Här diskuteras hur Polen som ny, återuppstånden stat i Europa efter första världskriget etablerar sig som en stark exportör av främst kolbränslen för att bygga upp landet och få fart på industrialisering och modernisering. Detta utgör en vidareutveckling av kap. 3 i den kommande boken från projektet "Sverige i det handelspolitiska maktspelet 1919-1939".

c) "Nordic foreign trade policy in the 1930s" (21 s.)
Detta är en komparativ studie av hur nordiska affärs- och handelskontakter etablerades
a) branschvis och genom karteller beträffande papper i exporten och kol i importen,
b) nationellt visavi stormakterna Storbritannien och Tyskland, i synnerhet under och efter depressionen 1929-1933 samt c) politiskt och ekonomiskt i internationella sammanhang inom NF, i synerhet genom den s k Oslokonventionen.

Detta bidrag kommer att ingå som ett kapitel i Peter Hedberg, Gudmundur Jónsson, Hans Kryger Larsen, Sven-Olof Olsson and Pål Sandvik (editors), "Managing crises and de-globalisation. Nordic foreign trade and exchange 1919-1939". Saxoinstitutet, Copenhagen, trycks hösten 2007/ våren 2008. 256 sidor. Boken blir samtidigt ett resultat av projektet "Small Nation's trade and power politics: The interwar experience", som stötts av Letterstedtska stiftelsen och Riksbankens jubileumsfond (Dnr F2004-1095:1-E).
Ovannämna editors har också gemensamt skrivit "Introduction" till boken (7 s.)

Här följer presentation av författarna samt innehållsförteckning och baksidestext

List of contributors

Guðmundur Jónsson is a Professor of History at the University of Iceland. He has published works on various aspects of 19th and 20th century social and economic history, including domestic servants, welfare and social policy, Iceland and the international economy, and economic growth. His current research is on Icelandic foreign trade in the 20th century.

Flemming Just is a Professor of contemporary European history. Since 2006 he has been director of Danish Institute of Rural Research and Development, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg Campus. His research focus on the cooperative movement, agricultural and food policy, and rural and food policy, and rural and regional development. His latest book is Food and Conflicts in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars, eds. Frank Trentmann and Flemming Just. Palgrave MacMillan 2006.

Peter Hedberg, Ass. Professor, Baltic Financial Markets Group at the School of Politics, Economics and Law, Södertörn University College and the Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Sweden, has published works on issues related to the Swedish interwar and wartime foreign trade and finance. Currently he is engaged with a project concerning economic integration by trade and finance in former planned economies, and institutional change in Central and Eastern Europe.

Morten Karnøe Søndergaard, Research Assistant, Centre for Maritime and Regional Studies, Fisheries and Maritime Museum, Esbjerg. His main research has been conducted within the fields of maritime history and the history of technology. Recent publications have been made in the International Journal of Maritime History and MAST/Maritime Studies.

Birgit Karlsson, Ass. Professor at the Department of Economic History, Faculty of Social Sciencies, Gothenburg University. Her research has focused mainly on the connection between trade policy and foreign policy, for example Swedish trade agreements with the Soviet Union. Recently Swedish relations to Germany have been analysed in Egenintresse eller samhällsintresse. Nazityskland och svensk skogsindustri 1933-1945 (Self interest or public interest. Nazi Germany and Swedish forest industry 1933-1945), Lund 2007.

Jari Kauppila, Dr (MA) is an administrator at the Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, Paris. Before that he has been working as ministerial adviser at the Economy Unit of the Ministry of Transport and Communications in Finland. He has just (August 2007) finished his doctoral studies on the Structure and Interdependency of Finnish Industries in the 1920s and 1930s: an input-output approach at the Departement of Social Science History of the University of Helsinki.

Hans Kryger Larsen, Ass. Professor at the Department of History, University of Copenhagen. 1975 M.A. History, University of Southern Denmark 1977-83; Research Fellow, Dep. of Economic History, University of Copenhagen; 1983-88 Research Fellow, The Carlsberg Foundation and University of Copenhagen.

Mats Morell, Professor in Economic history, Uppsala University 2004, Guest Professor in Agricultural history, Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala 2006, Among major publications: Jordbruket i industrisamhället: Det svenska jordbrukets historia IV (Agriculture in industrial society: The history of Swedish agriculture IV) Stockholm 2001. Currently leading a project on property transfer in farming i Sweden, Estonia and Hungary. Also engaged in CORN's four volume project on a comparative rural history of the North Sea area.

Sven-Olof Olsson, Ass. Professor at the Department of Economic History, Faculty of Social Sciences, Gothenburg University and Hlmastad University College. 1987-1992 Research fellow at the Centre of Energy Economics, Gothenburg University and leader of the research project "The Natural Gas Markets in the Nordic Countries" - out of which articles, reports and two books were published. Initiator and research leader of the research project "Small nations' trade and power politics: The Nordic interwar experience", of which this book is a result.

Patrick Salmon, Chief Historian at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London. Until 2003 Professor of International History at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Fellow of the Royal Historical Society and a Foreign Member of the Norwegian Society of Science and Letters. His publications include Scandinavia and the Great Powers 1890-1940, Cambridge, 1997.

Espen Storli, Espen Storli is a PhD Student at the Department of History and
Classical Studies, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. In his
dissertation he is researching foreign direct investments in the Norwegian aluminium industry in the interwar period.

Pål Thonstad Sandvik, Ass. Professor at the Department of History and
Classical Studies, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trond¬heim, has published several books on industrial and economic history, including Mekanisk industri i en europeisk periferi. Fabrikken ved Nidelven, Trondheim1994; Kristiansand Energiverk 1900-2000 Oslo 2000; Falcon¬bridge Nikkelverk 1910-1929-2004. Et internasjonalt selskap i Norge, Oslo 2004 and he was co-author of Norsk Hydros historie. Nasjonal kontroll og industriell fornyelse 1945-1977, Oslo 2005.

Monica Værholm, PhD Student at the Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Business Administration, Bergen

Lars Fredrik Øksendal is currently a research fellow with the Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. His main research interests are within monetary and financial history, and he has published in Scandinavian Economic History Review, Financial History Review and Review of International Political Economy. He will defend his doctoral dissertation on topics in Norwegian central banking under the classical gold standard in early 2008.

Baksidestext:

As small, open economies the Nordic states have always been more dependent on foreign trade than larger powers, and have thus had a historic preference for free trade. But during the inter-war period the Nordic countries were squeezed between powerful and aggressive trading partners: above all Great Britain and Germany. Although the period between the end of the First World War and 1929 was marked by a return to a liberal world economy, the Great Depression ushered in a decade of protectionism. The bilateralisation of international trade was especially evident after Britain's Ottawa treaties in 1932 and the Nazi seizure of power in 1933. Their dependence on trade with Britain and Germany meant that the Nordic countries were exposed to the full force of British and German bilateralism.

The paradox is that in spite of international trade wars and regulated exchange the Nordic countries managed better than other European states during the interwar period, and that the Great Depression was not as deep or long lasting as in other countries. The chapters in this book discuss why and how this rather successful Nordic experience was achieved. The topics covered include commercial and monetary policies but also important industries such as forestry, agriculture and fishing. Many of the chapters are comparative and discuss economic developments in two or more Nordic countries.

Publikationer

”Nordic foreign trade policy in the 1930s” (21 s.)
Detta bidragingår som ett kapitel i Peter Hedberg, Gudmundur Jónsson, Hans Kryger Larsen, Sven-Olof Olsson and Pål Sandvik (editors), ”Managing crises and de-globalisation. Nordic foreign trade and exchange 1919-1939”. Saxoinstitutet, Copenhagen, trycks hösten 2007/ våren 2008. 256 sidor.  Boken blir samtidigt ett resultat av projektet ”Small Nation’s trade and power politics: The interwar experience”, som stötts av Letterstedtska stiftelsen och Riksbankens jubileumsfond (Dnr F2004-1095:1-E).
Ovannämna editors har också gemensamt skrivit ”Introduction” till boken (7 s.)

Vetenskaplig slutrapport av projektet "Sverige i det handelspolitiska maktspelet 1919-1939" kommer att omfatta 160-175 s. och kommer att publiceras år 2008.